Synopsis

yb_is_local_table indicates whether a table is pinned to the local region. The function takes a table's OID (object identifier), and looks for a tablespace associated with that table. If the tablespace is confined to the same region as that of the YugabyteDB node processing the query, the function returns true. Otherwise, the function returns false.

Note

  • Passing the OID of a temporary table will always return true as temporary tables are considered local.
  • Tables not assigned a tablespace will always be considered remote.

Usage in Row-level geo-partitioning

This function is primarily helpful while implementing Row-level geo-partitioning, as it can significantly simplify selecting rows from the local partition. Every table contains a system column called tableoid. This stores the oid of the table to which the row belongs. While querying a partitioned table, the tableoid column thus returns the oid of the partition to which the row belongs. The following sections describe how the tableoid column can be used with yb_is_local_table function to query the local partition.

Use case examples

Setup

You can create a 3 node multi-region cluster and a geo-partitioned table using tablespaces with the following steps:

  1. Create a cluster spread across 3 regions us-west-1, us-east-1, us-east-2 using yugabyted as follows:

    ./bin/yugabyted start                           \
      --base_dir=/home/yugabyte/<IP1>/yugabyte-data \
      --listen=<IP1>                                \
      --master_flags "placement_cloud=aws,placement_region=us-west-1,placement_zone=us-west-1c" \
      --tserver_flags "placement_cloud=aws,placement_region=us-west-1,placement_zone=us-west-1c"
    
    ./bin/yugabyted start                           \
      --base_dir=/home/yugabyte/<IP2>/yugabyte-data \
      --listen=<IP2>                                \
      --join=<IP1>                                  \
      --master_flags "placement_cloud=aws,placement_region=us-east-2,placement_zone=us-east-2c" \
      --tserver_flags "placement_cloud=aws,placement_region=us-east-2,placement_zone=us-east-2c"
    
    ./bin/yugabyted start                            \
      --base_dir=/home/yugabyte/<IP3>/yugabyte-data  \
      --listen=<IP3>                                 \
      --join=<IP1>                                   \
      --master_flags "placement_cloud=aws,placement_region=us-east-1,placement_zone=us-east-1a" \
      --tserver_flags "placement_cloud=aws,placement_region=us-east-1,placement_zone=us-east-1a"
    
  2. Use yb-admin to specify the placement configuration to be used by the cluster as follows:

    ./bin/yb-admin -master_addresses <IP1>:7100 modify_placement_info aws.us-west-1.us-west-1c:1,aws.us-east-1.us-east-1a:1,aws.us-east-2.us-east-2c:1 3
    
  3. Create tablespaces corresponding to the regions used by the cluster created above using ysqlsh as follows:

    CREATE TABLESPACE us_west_tablespace WITH (replica_placement=' {"num_replicas":1,"placement_blocks":[     {"cloud":"aws","region":"us-west-1","zone":"us-west-1c","min_num_replicas":1}]}');
    CREATE TABLESPACE us_east1_tablespace WITH (replica_placement=' {"num_replicas":1,"placement_blocks":[     {"cloud":"aws","region":"us-east-1","zone":"us-east-1a","min_num_replicas":1}]}');
    CREATE TABLESPACE us_east2_tablespace WITH (replica_placement=' {"num_replicas":1,"placement_blocks":[     {"cloud":"aws","region":"us-east-2","zone":"us-east-2c","min_num_replicas":1}]}');
    

    For more information on how to setup a cluster with yugabyted or YugabyteDB Anywhere with corresponding tablespaces, see tablespaces.

  4. Using the tablespaces, you can create a geo-partitioned table as follows. This is a partitioned table with 3 partitions, where each partition is pinned to a different location.

    CREATE TABLE users(user_id INTEGER NOT NULL,
                       user_info VARCHAR NOT NULL,
                       geo_partition VARCHAR NOT NULL,
                       PRIMARY KEY(user_id, geo_partition))
       PARTITION BY LIST(geo_partition);
    
    CREATE TABLE user_us_west PARTITION OF users FOR VALUES IN ('us-west') TABLESPACE us_west_tablespace;
    
    CREATE TABLE user_us_east1 PARTITION OF users FOR VALUES IN ('us-east1') TABLESPACE     us_east1_tablespace;
    
    CREATE TABLE user_us_east2 PARTITION OF users FOR VALUES IN ('us-east2') TABLESPACE     us_east2_tablespace;
    
  5. Insert some sample data to the users table as follows:

    INSERT INTO users VALUES(1, 'US east user', 'us-east1');
    INSERT INTO users VALUES(2, 'US west user', 'us-west');
    INSERT INTO users VALUES(3, 'US central user', 'us-east2');
    
  6. In a partitioned setup, if there are no WHERE clause restrictions on the partition key, note that every query on a partitioned table gets fanned out to all of its child partitions:

    EXPLAIN (COSTS OFF) SELECT * FROM users;
    
                                    QUERY PLAN
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
     Append
       ->  Seq Scan on user_us_east2
       ->  Seq Scan on user_us_east1
       ->  Seq Scan on user_us_west
    (4 rows)
    

Using yb_is_local_table() on a partitioned table

Assuming that the client is in the us-west region, note that using yb_is_local_table() in the WHERE clause causes YSQL to only scan the us_user_west_table:

EXPLAIN (COSTS OFF) SELECT * FROM users WHERE yb_is_local_table(tableoid);
                 QUERY PLAN
---------------------------------------------
 Append
   ->  Seq Scan on user_us_west
         Filter: yb_is_local_table(tableoid)
(3 rows)
SELECT * FROM users WHERE yb_is_local_table(tableoid);
SELECT * FROM users WHERE yb_is_local_table(tableoid);
 user_id |  user_info   | geo_partition
---------+--------------+---------------
       2 | US west user | us-west
(1 row)

JOINs

The yb_is_local_table function can also be used while performing JOINs, to filter out results. Assume another partitioned table users_transactions and some sample data as follows:

CREATE TABLE users_transactions (user_id INTEGER NOT NULL,
                                transaction_id INTEGER NOT NULL,
                                geo_partition VARCHAR NOT NULL)
   PARTITION BY LIST(geo_partition);

-- Create 3 partitions for each tablespace.
CREATE TABLE user_txn_west PARTITION OF users_transactions FOR VALUES IN ('us-west') TABLESPACE us_west_tablespace;
CREATE TABLE user_txn_east1 PARTITION OF users_transactions FOR VALUES IN ('us-east1') TABLESPACE us_east1_tablespace;
CREATE TABLE user_txn_east2 PARTITION OF users_transactions FOR VALUES IN ('us-east2') TABLESPACE us_east2_tablespace;

-- Insert a row into each partition.
INSERT INTO users_transactions VALUES(1, 3789, 'us-east1');
INSERT INTO users_transactions VALUES(2, 5276, 'us-west');
INSERT INTO users_transactions VALUES(3, 2984, 'us-east2');

To perform a JOIN across the local partitions of both the tables, you can run the following query with two WHERE clauses, one for each partitioned table.

SELECT * FROM users, users_transactions WHERE users.user_id = users_transactions.user_id AND yb_is_local_table(users.tableoid) AND yb_is_local_table(users_transactions.tableoid);
 user_id |  user_info   | geo_partition | user_id | transaction_id | geo_partition
---------+--------------+---------------+---------+----------------+---------------
       2 | US west user | us-west       |       2 |           5276 | us-west
(1 row)

Note that only the local partition in both the partitioned tables is being scanned.

EXPLAIN (COSTS OFF) SELECT * FROM users, users_transactions WHERE users.user_id = users_transactions.user_id AND yb_is_local_table(users.tableoid) AND yb_is_local_table(users_transactions.tableoid);
                          QUERY PLAN
--------------------------------------------------------------
 Merge Join
   Merge Cond: (user_us_west.user_id = user_txn_west.user_id)
   ->  Sort
         Sort Key: user_us_west.user_id
         ->  Append
               ->  Seq Scan on user_us_west
                     Filter: yb_is_local_table(tableoid)
   ->  Sort
         Sort Key: user_txn_west.user_id
         ->  Append
               ->  Seq Scan on user_txn_west
                     Filter: yb_is_local_table(tableoid)
(12 rows)

Other applications

The yb_is_local_table function can be used on any database object that can be associated with a tablespace. For instance, the following query can be used to list all the indexes and tables that have been tied to a local tablespace:

SELECT oid, relname from pg_class WHERE yb_is_local_table(oid);
  oid  |      relname
-------+-------------------
 16392 | user_us_west
 16395 | user_us_west_pkey
 16410 | user_txn_west
(3 rows)

Limitations

  • Usage of this function is not optimized for UPDATE and DELETE queries. The planner will still scan all the partitions to find the rows that are present in the local partition.

  • Usage of this function is not optimized when it is part of a bigger expression. For example, WHERE !yb_is_local_table(tableoid). In this case also, the planner will still scan all the partitions to find the rows that are not present in the local partition.