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YugabyteDB consists of two distributed services - the YB-Master service and the YB-TServer service. The YB-Master service should be brought up first followed by the YB-TServer service. In order to bring up these distributed services, the respective processes (YB-Master or YB-TServer) need to be started across different machines. Below are some considerations and recommendations on starting these services. The deployment configurations section below has detailed steps on how to setup Yugabyte clusters.
- YugabyteDB works on a variety of OSes. For production workloads, the recommended OS is Centos 7.x or RHEL 7.x.
- Set the appropriate system limits using
ulimiton each node running a YugabyteDB process.
- Use ntp to synchronize time among the machines.
YugabyteDB internally replicates data in order to survive node failure without compromising data correctness. The number of copies of the data represents the replication factor.
You would first need to choose a replication factor. You would need at least as many machines as the replication factor. YugabyteDB works with both hostnames or IP addresses. IP Addresses are preferred at this point, they are more extensively tested. Below are some recommendations relating to the replication factor.
- The replication factor should be an odd number
- The default replication factor is 3.
- A replication factor of 3 allows tolerating one machine failure.
- A replication factor of 5 allows tolerating two machine failures.
- More generally, if the replication factor is
n, YugabyteDB can survive
(n - 1) / 2failures without compromising correctness or availability of data.
- Number of YB-Master processes running in a cluster should match replication factor. Run each process on a separate machine to prevent losing data on failures.
- Number of YB-TServer processes running in the cluster should not be less than the replication factor. Run each process on a separate machine to prevent losing data on failures.
- Specify the replication factor using the
--replication_factorwhen bringing up the YB-Master processes.
See the yb-master command reference for more information.
YugabyteDB is designed to run well on bare-metal machines, virtual machines or containers.
CPU and RAM
Allocate adequate CPU and RAM. YugabyteDB has good defaults for running on a wide range of machines, and has been tested from 2 core to 64 core machines, and up to 200GB RAM.
- Minimum configuration: 2 cores and 2GB RAM
- For higher performance:
- 8 cores or more
- Add more CPU (compared to adding more RAM) to improve performance.
- Use SSDs (solid state disks) for good performance.
- Both local or remote attached storage work with YugabyteDB. Since YugabyteDB internally replicates data for fault tolerance, remote attached storage which which does its own additional replication is not a requirement. Local disks often offer better performance at a lower cost.
- Multi-disk nodes - Do not use RAID across multiple disks. YugabyteDB can natively handle multi-disk nodes (JBOD). - Create a data directory on each of the data disks and specify a comma separated list of those directories to the yb-master and yb-tserver processes via the --fs_data_dirs flag
- Mount settings
- XFS is the recommended filesystem
- Use the
noatimesetting when mounting the data drives
Below is a minimal list of default ports (along with the network access required) in order to use YugabyteDB.
- Each of the nodes in the YugabyteDB cluster must be able to communicate with each other using TCP/IP on the following ports - 7100 (YB-Master RPC communication port) - 9100 (YB-Tserver RPC communication port)
- In order to view the cluster dashboard, you need to be able to navigate to the following ports on the nodes - 7000 (Cluster dashboard viewable from any of the YB-Master processes)
- To use the database from the app, the following ports need to be accessible from the app (or commandline interface) - 9042 (which supports YCQL, Yugabyte's Cassandra-compatible API) - 6379 (which supports YEDIS, Yugabyte's Redis-compatible API)
Default ports reference
The above deployment uses the various default ports listed below.
||admin web server||7000|
||admin web server||9000|
||admin web server||13000|
||admin web server||12000|
||admin web server||11000|
||Prometheus node exporter||9300|
NoteIn our Enterprise installs, we change the SSH port for added security.
For YugabyteDB to preserve data consistency, the clock drift and clock skew across different nodes must be bounded. This can be achieved by running a clock synchronization software such as NTP . Below are some recommendations on how to configure clock synchronization.
Set a safe value for the maximum clock skew parameter (
--max_clock_skew_usec) when starting the YugabyteDB processes. We recommend setting this parameter to twice the expected maximum clock skew between any two nodes in your deployment.
For example, if the maximum clock skew across nodes is expected to be no more than 250ms, then set the parameter to 500ms (
The maximum clock drift on any node should be bounded to no more than 500 PPM (or parts per million). This means that the clock on any node should drift by no more than 0.5ms per second. Note that 0.5ms per second is the standard assumption of clock drift in Linux.
NoteIn practice, the clock drift would have to be orders of magnitude higher in order to cause correctness issues.
Running on public clouds
Amazon Web Services (AWS)
- Use the
- Recommended types are
- For the
c5instance family, use
gp2EBS (SSD) disks that are at least 250GB in size, larger if more IOPS are needed. - The number of IOPS are proportional to the size of the disk. - In our testing,
gp2EBS SSDs provide the best performance for a given cost among the various EBS disk options.
- Avoid running on
t2instance types . The
t2instance types are burstable instance types. Their baseline performance and ability to burst are governed by CPU Credits, and makes it hard to get steady performance.
- Use the
n1-highcpuinstance family. As a second choice,
n1-standardinstance family works too.
- Recommended instance types are
- Local SSDs are the preferred storage option. - Each local SSD is 375 GB in size, but you can attach up to eight local SSD devices for 3 TB of total local SSD storage space per instance.
- As a second choice, remote persistent SSDs work well. Make sure the size of these SSDs are at least 250GB in size, larger if more IOPS are needed. - The number of IOPS are proportional to the size of the disk.
- Avoid running on
g1machine families. These are burstable, shared core machines that may not deliver steady performance.