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Local vs remote SSDs
Kubernetes gives users the option of using remote disks using dynamic provisioning or local storage which has to be pre-provisioned.
Local storage gives great performance but the data is not replicated and can be lost if the node fails. This option is ideal for databases like YugabyteDB that manage their own replication and can guarantee HA.
Remote storage has slightly lower performance but the data is resilient to failures. This type of storage is absolutely essential for databases that do not offer HA (for example, traditional RDBMSs like Postgres and MySQL).
Below is a table that summarizes the features and when to use local vs remote storage.
|Local SSD storage||Remote SSD storage|
|Provision large disk capacity per node||Depends on cloud-provider||Yes|
|Ideal deployment strategy with YugabyteDB||Use for latency sensitive apps
Add remote storage to increase capacity / cost-efficient tiering
|Use for large disk capacity per node|
|Disk storage resilient to failures||No||Yes|
|Performance - latency||Lower||Higher|
|Performance - throughput||Higher||Lower|
|Typical cost characteristics||Lower||Higher|
|Kubernetes provisioning scheme||Pre-provisioned||Dynamic provisioning|
Thus, it is generally preferable to use local storage where possible for higher performance and lower costs. The following section explains how to deploy YugabyteDB on Kubernetes using local SSDs.
1. Create a gcloud cluster
Each cluster brings up 3 nodes each of the type
n1-standard-1 for the Kubernetes masters. You can directly create a cluster with the desired machine type using the
--machine-type option. In thie example we are going to create a node-pool with
n1-standard-8 type nodes for the Yugabyte universe.
- Choose the zone
First, choose the zone in which you want to run the cluster in. In this tutorial, we are going to deploy the Kubernetes masters using the default machine type
n1-standard-1 in the zone
us-west1-a, and add a node pool with the desired node type and node count in order to deploy the YugabyteDB universe. You can view the list of zones by running the following command:
$ gcloud compute zones list
NAME REGION STATUS ... us-west1-b us-west1 UP us-west1-c us-west1 UP us-west1-a us-west1 UP ...
- Create the glcoud container cluster
Create a Kubernetes cluster on GKE by running the following in order to create a cluster in the desired zone.
$ gcloud container clusters create yugabyte --zone us-west1-b
- List gcloud container clusters
You can list the available cluster by running the following command.
$ gcloud container clusters list
NAME LOCATION MASTER_VERSION MASTER_IP MACHINE_TYPE NODE_VERSION NUM_NODES STATUS yugabyte us-west1-b 1.8.7-gke.1 22.214.171.124 n1-standard-1 1.8.7-gke.1 3 RUNNING
2. Create a node pool
Create a node pool with 3 nodes, each having 8 cpus and 2 local SSDs.
$ gcloud container node-pools create node-pool-8cpu-2ssd \ --cluster=yugabyte \ --local-ssd-count=2 \ --machine-type=n1-standard-8 \ --num-nodes=3 \ --zone=us-west1-b
Created NAME MACHINE_TYPE DISK_SIZE_GB NODE_VERSION node-pool-8cpu-2ssd n1-standard-8 100 1.8.7-gke.1
--local-ssd-count option above, which tells gcloud to mount the nodes with 2 local SSDs each.
We can list all the node pools by doing the following.
$ gcloud container node-pools list --cluster yugabyte --zone=us-west1-b
NAME MACHINE_TYPE DISK_SIZE_GB NODE_VERSION default-pool n1-standard-1 100 1.8.7-gke.1 node-pool-8cpu-2ssd n1-standard-8 100 1.8.7-gke.1
You can view details of the node-pool just created by running the following command:
$ gcloud container node-pools describe node-pool-8cpu-2ssd --cluster yugabyte --zone=us-west1-b
config: diskSizeGb: 100 imageType: COS localSsdCount: 2 machineType: n1-standard-8 initialNodeCount: 3 name: node-pool-8cpu-2ssd
3. Create a YugabyteDB universe
If this is your only container cluster,
kubectl automatically points to this cluster. However, if you have multiple clusters, you should switch
kubectl to point to this cluster by running the following command:
$ gcloud container clusters get-credentials yugabyte --zone us-west1-b
Fetching cluster endpoint and auth data. kubeconfig entry generated for yugabyte.
You can launch a universe on this node pool to run on local SSDs by running the following command.
$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/yugabyte/yugabyte-db/master/cloud/kubernetes/yugabyte-statefulset-local-ssd-gke.yaml
service "yb-masters" created service "yb-master-ui" created statefulset "yb-master" created service "yb-tservers" created statefulset "yb-tserver" created
Note the following
nodeSelector snippet in the yaml file which instructs the Kubernetes scheduler to place the Yugabyte pods on nodes that have local disks:
nodeSelector: cloud.google.com/gke-local-ssd: "true"
Also, note that we instruct the scheduler to place the various pods in the
yb-tserver services on different physical nodes with the
spec: affinity: # Set the anti-affinity selector scope to YB masters. podAntiAffinity: preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: - weight: 100 podAffinityTerm: labelSelector: matchExpressions: - key: app operator: In values: - yb-master topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
4. View the universe
You can verify that the YugabyteDB pods are running by doing the following:
$ kubectl get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE yb-master-0 1/1 Running 0 49s yb-master-1 1/1 Running 0 49s yb-master-2 1/1 Running 0 49s yb-tserver-0 1/1 Running 0 48s yb-tserver-1 1/1 Running 0 48s yb-tserver-2 1/1 Running 0 48s
You can check all the services that are running by doing the following:
$ kubectl get services
NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE kubernetes ClusterIP 10.7.240.1 <none> 443/TCP 11m yb-master-ui LoadBalancer 10.7.246.86 XX.XX.XX.XX 7000:30707/TCP 1m yb-masters ClusterIP None <none> 7000/TCP,7100/TCP 1m yb-tservers ClusterIP None <none> 9000/TCP,9100/TCP,9042/TCP,6379/TCP 1m
yb-master-ui service above. It is a loadbalancer service, which exposes the YugabyteDB universe UI. You can view this by browsing to the url http://XX.XX.XX.XX:7000. It should look as follows.
5. Connect to the universe
You can connect to one of the tserver pods and verify that the local disk is mounted into the pods.
$ kubectl exec -it yb-tserver-0 bash
We can observe the local disks by running the following command.
[[email protected] yugabyte]# df -kh Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on ... /dev/sdb 369G 70M 350G 1% /mnt/disk0 /dev/sdc 369G 69M 350G 1% /mnt/disk1 ...
You can connect to the
cqlsh shell on this universe by running the following command.
$ kubectl exec -it yb-tserver-0 bin/cqlsh
Connected to local cluster at 127.0.0.1:9042. [cqlsh 5.0.1 | Cassandra 3.9-SNAPSHOT | CQL spec 3.4.2 | Native protocol v4] Use HELP for help. cqlsh> DESCRIBE KEYSPACES; system_schema system_auth system
6. [Optional] Destroy the cluster
You can destroy the YugabyteDB universe by running the following. Note that this does not destroy the data, and you may not be able to respawn the cluster because there is data left behind on the persistent disks.
$ kubectl delete -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/yugabyte/yugabyte-db/master/cloud/kubernetes/yugabyte-statefulset-local-ssd-gke.yaml
You can destroy the node-pool we created by running the following command:
$ gcloud container node-pools delete node-pool-8cpu-2ssd --cluster yugabyte --zone=us-west1-b
Finally, you can destroy the entire gcloud container cluster by running the following:
$ gcloud beta container clusters delete yugabyte --zone us-west1-b