Live migration with fall-forward TECH PREVIEW

Steps for a live migration with fall-forward using YugabyteDB Voyager

When migrating using YugabyteDB Voyager, it is prudent to have a backup strategy if the new database doesn't work as expected. A fall-forward approach consists of creating a third database (the source-replica database) that is a replica of your original source database.

A fall-forward approach allows you to test the system end-to-end. This workflow is especially important in heterogeneous migration scenarios, in which source and target databases are using different engines.

Fall-forward workflow

fall-forward short

Before starting a live migration, you set up the source-replica database (via import data to source-replica). During migration, yb-voyager replicates the snapshot data along with new changes exported from the source database to the target and source-replica databases, as shown in the following illustration:

After import data to source-replica

At cutover to target, applications stop writing to the source database and start writing to the target YugabyteDB database. After the cutover process is complete, Voyager keeps the source-replica database synchronized with changes from the target YugabyteDB database as shown in the following illustration:

After cutover

Finally, if you need to switch to the source-replica database (because the current YugabyteDB system is not working as expected), you can initiate cutover to your source-replica.

After initiate cutover to source-replica

The following illustration describes the workflow for live migration using YB Voyager with the fall-forward option.

Live migration with fall-forward workflow

Before proceeding with migration, ensure that you have completed the following steps:

Prepare the source database

Create a new database user, and assign the necessary user permissions.

  1. Ensure that your database log_mode is archivelog as follows:

    SELECT LOG_MODE FROM V$DATABASE;
    
    LOG_MODE
    ------------
    ARCHIVELOG
    

    If log_mode is NOARCHIVELOG (that is, not enabled), run the following command:

    sqlplus /nolog
    SQL>alter system set db_recovery_file_dest_size = 10G;
    SQL>alter system set db_recovery_file_dest = '<oracle_path>/oradata/recovery_area' scope=spfile;
    SQL> connect / as sysdba
    SQL> Shutdown immediate
    SQL> Startup mount
    SQL> Alter database archivelog;
    SQL> Alter database open;
    
  2. Create the tablespaces as follows:

    1. Connect to Pluggable database (PDB) as sysdba and run the following command:

      CREATE TABLESPACE logminer_tbs DATAFILE '/opt/oracle/oradata/ORCLCDB/ORCLPDB1/logminer_tbs.dbf'
        SIZE 25M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON MAXSIZE UNLIMITED;
      
    2. Connect to Container database (CDB) as sysdba and run the following command:

      CREATE TABLESPACE logminer_tbs DATAFILE '/opt/oracle/oradata/ORCLCDB/logminer_tbs.dbf'
        SIZE 25M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON MAXSIZE UNLIMITED;
      
  3. Run the following commands from CDB as sysdba:

    CREATE USER c##ybvoyager IDENTIFIED BY password
      DEFAULT TABLESPACE logminer_tbs
      QUOTA UNLIMITED ON logminer_tbs
      CONTAINER=ALL;
    
    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SET CONTAINER TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$DATABASE to c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT FLASHBACK ANY TABLE TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ANY TABLE TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT EXECUTE_CATALOG_ROLE TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ANY TRANSACTION TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT LOGMINING TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    
    GRANT CREATE TABLE TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT LOCK ANY TABLE TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT CREATE SEQUENCE TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    
    GRANT EXECUTE ON DBMS_LOGMNR TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT EXECUTE ON DBMS_LOGMNR_D TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$LOG TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$LOG_HISTORY TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$LOGMNR_LOGS TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$LOGMNR_CONTENTS TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$LOGMNR_PARAMETERS TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$LOGFILE TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$ARCHIVED_LOG TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$ARCHIVE_DEST_STATUS TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$TRANSACTION TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$MYSTAT TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    GRANT SELECT ON V_$STATNAME TO c##ybvoyager CONTAINER=ALL;
    
  4. Enable supplemental logging in the database as follows:

    ALTER DATABASE ADD SUPPLEMENTAL LOG DATA;
    ALTER DATABASE ADD SUPPLEMENTAL LOG DATA (PRIMARY KEY) COLUMNS;
    
  1. Ensure that your database log_mode is archivelog as follows:

    SELECT LOG_MODE FROM V$DATABASE;
    
    LOG_MODE
    ------------
    ARCHIVELOG
    

    If log_mode is NOARCHIVELOG (that is, not enabled), run the following command:

    exec rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.set_configuration('archivelog retention hours',24);
    
  2. Connect to your database as an admin user, and create the tablespaces as follows:

    CREATE TABLESPACE logminer_tbs DATAFILE SIZE 25M AUTOEXTEND ON MAXSIZE UNLIMITED;
    
  3. Run the following commands connected to the admin or privileged user:

    CREATE USER ybvoyager IDENTIFIED BY password
      DEFAULT TABLESPACE logminer_tbs
      QUOTA UNLIMITED ON logminer_tbs;
    
    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO YBVOYAGER;
    begin rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
          p_obj_name  => 'V_$DATABASE',
          p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
          p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
    GRANT FLASHBACK ANY TABLE TO YBVOYAGER;
    GRANT SELECT ANY TABLE TO YBVOYAGER;
    GRANT SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE TO YBVOYAGER;
    GRANT EXECUTE_CATALOG_ROLE TO YBVOYAGER;
    GRANT SELECT ANY TRANSACTION TO YBVOYAGER;
    GRANT LOGMINING TO YBVOYAGER;
    
    GRANT CREATE TABLE TO YBVOYAGER;
    GRANT LOCK ANY TABLE TO YBVOYAGER;
    GRANT CREATE SEQUENCE TO YBVOYAGER;
    
    
    begin rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
          p_obj_name => 'DBMS_LOGMNR',
          p_grantee => 'YBVOYAGER',
          p_privilege => 'EXECUTE',
          p_grant_option => true);
    end;
    /
    
    begin rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
          p_obj_name => 'DBMS_LOGMNR_D',
          p_grantee => 'YBVOYAGER',
          p_privilege => 'EXECUTE',
          p_grant_option => true);
    end;
    /
    
    begin rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
          p_obj_name  => 'V_$LOG',
          p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
          p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
    begin
        rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
            p_obj_name  => 'V_$LOG_HISTORY',
            p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
            p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
    begin
        rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
            p_obj_name  => 'V_$LOGMNR_LOGS',
            p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
            p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
    begin
        rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
            p_obj_name  => 'V_$LOGMNR_CONTENTS',
            p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
            p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
    begin
        rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
            p_obj_name  => 'V_$LOGMNR_PARAMETERS',
            p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
            p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
    begin
        rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
            p_obj_name  => 'V_$LOGFILE',
            p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
            p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
    begin
        rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
            p_obj_name  => 'V_$ARCHIVED_LOG',
            p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
            p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
    begin
        rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
            p_obj_name  => 'V_$ARCHIVE_DEST_STATUS',
            p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
            p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
    begin
        rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
            p_obj_name  => 'V_$TRANSACTION',
            p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
            p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
    begin
        rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
            p_obj_name  => 'V_$MYSTAT',
            p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
            p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
    begin
        rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.grant_sys_object(
            p_obj_name  => 'V_$STATNAME',
            p_grantee   => 'YBVOYAGER',
            p_privilege => 'SELECT');
    end;
    /
    
  4. Enable supplemental logging in the database as follows:

    exec rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.alter_supplemental_logging('ADD');
    
    begin
        rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.alter_supplemental_logging(
            p_action => 'ADD',
            p_type   => 'PRIMARY KEY');
    end;
    /
    
  1. yb_voyager requires wal_level to be logical. You can check this using following the steps:

    1. Run the command SHOW wal_level on the database to check the value.

    2. If the value is anything other than logical, run the command SHOW config_file to know the path of your configuration file.

    3. Modify the configuration file by uncommenting the parameter wal_level and set the value to logical.

    4. Restart PostgreSQL.

  2. Check that the replica identity is FULL (f) for all tables on the database.

    1. Check the replica identity using the following query:

      SELECT relname, relreplident
      FROM pg_class
      WHERE relnamespace = (SELECT oid FROM pg_namespace WHERE nspname = '<source_schema_name>') AND relkind = 'r';
      
    2. Change the replica identity of all tables if the tables have an identity other than FULL (f), using the following query:

      DO $$
      DECLARE
        table_name_var text;
      BEGIN
        FOR table_name_var IN (SELECT table_name FROM information_schema.tables WHERE table_schema = '<source_schema_name>' AND table_type = 'BASE TABLE')
        LOOP
          EXECUTE 'ALTER TABLE ' || table_name_var || ' REPLICA IDENTITY FULL';
        END LOOP;
      END $$;
      
  3. Create user ybvoyager for the migration using the following command:

    CREATE USER ybvoyager PASSWORD 'password' REPLICATION;
    
  4. Switch to the database that you want to migrate as follows:

    \c <database_name>
    
  5. Grant the USAGE permission to the ybvoyager user on all schemas of the database as follows:

    SELECT 'GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA ' || schema_name || ' TO ybvoyager;' FROM information_schema.schemata; \gexec
    

    The preceding SELECT statement generates a list of GRANT USAGE statements which are then executed by psql because of the \gexec switch. The \gexec switch works for PostgreSQL v9.6 and later. For earlier versions, you'll have to manually execute the GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA schema_name TO ybvoyager statement, for each schema in the source PostgreSQL database.

  6. Grant SELECT permission on all the tables and sequences as follows:

    SELECT 'GRANT SELECT ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA ' || schema_name || ' TO ybvoyager;' FROM information_schema.schemata; \gexec
    
    SELECT 'GRANT SELECT ON ALL SEQUENCES IN SCHEMA ' || schema_name || ' TO ybvoyager;' FROM information_schema.schemata; \gexec
    

    The ybvoyager user can now be used for migration.

  7. Create a replication group as follows:

    CREATE ROLE replication_group;
    
  8. Add the original owner of the table to the group as follows:

    GRANT replication_group TO <original_owner>;
    
  9. Add the user ybvoyager to the replication group as follows:

    GRANT replication_group TO ybvoyager;
    
  10. Transfer ownership of the tables to the role replication_group as follows:

    DO $$
    DECLARE
      cur_table text;
    BEGIN
      FOR cur_table IN (SELECT table_name FROM information_schema.tables WHERE table_schema = '<source_schema_name>')
      LOOP
        EXECUTE 'ALTER TABLE ' || cur_table || ' OWNER TO replication_group';
      END LOOP;
    END $$;
    
  11. Grant CREATE privilege on the source database to ybvoyager as follows:

    GRANT CREATE ON DATABASE <database_name> TO ybvoyager; --required to create a publication.
    
  1. yb_voyager requires wal_level to be logical. This is controlled by a database parameter rds.logical_replication which needs to be set to 1. You can check this using following the steps:

    1. Run the command SHOW rds.logical_replication on the database to check whether the parameter is set.

    2. If the parameter is not set, you can change the parameter value to 1 from the RDS console of the database; navigate to Configuration > Parameter group > rds.logical_replication.

    3. If the rds.logical_replication errors out (after the change), create a new parameter group with the value as 1, and assign it to the database instance from the Modify option on the RDS console.

    4. Restart RDS.

  2. Check that the replica identity is FULL (f) for all tables on the database.

    1. Check the Replica identity for all the tables on the database as follows:

      SELECT relname, relreplident
      FROM pg_class
      WHERE relnamespace = (SELECT oid FROM pg_namespace WHERE nspname = '<source_schema_name>') AND relkind = 'r';
      
    2. Change the replica identity of all tables if the tables have an identity other than FULL (f), using the following query:

      DO $$
      DECLARE
        table_name_var text;
      BEGIN
        FOR table_name_var IN (SELECT table_name FROM information_schema.tables WHERE table_schema = '<source_schema_name>' AND table_type = 'BASE TABLE')
        LOOP
          EXECUTE 'ALTER TABLE ' || table_name_var || ' REPLICA IDENTITY FULL';
        END LOOP;
      END $$;
      
  3. Create user ybvoyager for the migration using the following command:

    CREATE USER ybvoyager PASSWORD 'password';
    GRANT rds_replication to ybvoyager;
    
  4. Switch to the database that you want to migrate as follows:

    \c <database_name>
    
  5. Grant the USAGE permission to the ybvoyager user on all schemas of the database as follows:

    SELECT 'GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA ' || schema_name || ' TO ybvoyager;' FROM information_schema.schemata; \gexec
    

    The preceding SELECT statement generates a list of GRANT USAGE statements which are then executed by psql because of the \gexec switch. The \gexec switch works for PostgreSQL v9.6 and later. For older versions, you'll have to manually execute the GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA schema_name TO ybvoyager statement, for each schema in the source PostgreSQL database.

  6. Grant SELECT permission on all the tables and sequences as follows:

    SELECT 'GRANT SELECT ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA ' || schema_name || ' TO ybvoyager;' FROM information_schema.schemata; \gexec
    
    SELECT 'GRANT SELECT ON ALL SEQUENCES IN SCHEMA ' || schema_name || ' TO ybvoyager;' FROM information_schema.schemata; \gexec
    
  7. Create a replication group as follows:

    CREATE ROLE replication_group;
    
  8. Add the original owner of the table to the group as follows:

    GRANT replication_group TO <original_owner>;
    
  9. Add the user ybvoyager to the replication group as follows:

    GRANT replication_group TO ybvoyager;
    
  10. Transfer ownership of the tables to the role <replication_group> as follows:

    DO $$
    DECLARE
      cur_table text;
    BEGIN
      FOR cur_table IN (SELECT table_name FROM information_schema.tables WHERE table_schema = '<source_schema_name>')
      LOOP
        EXECUTE 'ALTER TABLE ' || cur_table || ' OWNER TO replication_group';
      END LOOP;
    END $$;
    
  11. Grant CREATE privilege on the source database to ybvoyager as follows:

    GRANT CREATE ON DATABASE <database_name> TO ybvoyager; --required to create a publication.
    

    The ybvoyager user can now be used for migration.

If you want yb-voyager to connect to the source database over SSL, refer to SSL Connectivity.

Connecting to Oracle instances

You can use only one of the following arguments to connect to your Oracle instance.

  • --source-db-schema (Schema name of the source database.)
  • --oracle-db-sid (Oracle System Identifier you can use while exporting data from Oracle instances.)
  • --oracle-tns-alias (TNS (Transparent Network Substrate) alias configured to establish a secure connection with the server.)

Prepare the target database

Prepare your target YugabyteDB database cluster by creating a database, and a user for your cluster.

Create the target database

Create the target YugabyteDB database in your YugabyteDB cluster. The database name can be the same or different from the source database name.

If you don't provide the target YugabyteDB database name during import, yb-voyager assumes the target YugabyteDB database name is yugabyte. To specify the target YugabyteDB database name during import, use the --target-db-name argument with the yb-voyager import commands.

CREATE DATABASE target_db_name;

Create a user

Create a user with SUPERUSER role.

  • For a local YugabyteDB cluster or YugabyteDB Anywhere, create a user and role with the superuser privileges using the following command:

    CREATE USER ybvoyager SUPERUSER PASSWORD 'password';
    

If you want yb-voyager to connect to the target YugabyteDB database over SSL, refer to SSL Connectivity.

Deleting the ybvoyager user

After migration, all the migrated objects (tables, views, and so on) are owned by the ybvoyager user. You should transfer the ownership of the objects to some other user (for example, yugabyte) and then delete the ybvoyager user. Example steps to delete the user are:

REASSIGN OWNED BY ybvoyager TO yugabyte;
DROP OWNED BY ybvoyager;
DROP USER ybvoyager;

Create an export directory

yb-voyager keeps all of its migration state, including exported schema and data, in a local directory called the export directory.

Before starting migration, you should create the export directory on a file system that has enough space to keep the entire source database. Next, you should provide the path of the export directory as a mandatory argument (--export-dir) to each invocation of the yb-voyager command in an environment variable.

mkdir $HOME/export-dir
export EXPORT_DIR=$HOME/export-dir

The export directory has the following sub-directories and files:

  • reports directory contains the generated Schema Analysis Report.
  • schema directory contains the source database schema translated to PostgreSQL. The schema is partitioned into smaller files by the schema object type such as tables, views, and so on.
  • data directory contains CSV (Comma Separated Values) files that are passed to the COPY command on the target YugabyteDB database.
  • metainfo and temp directories are used by yb-voyager for internal bookkeeping.
  • logs directory contains the log files for each command.

Prepare source-replica database

Perform the following steps to prepare your source-replica database:

  1. Create ybvoyager_metadata schema or user, and tables as follows:

    CREATE USER ybvoyager_metadata IDENTIFIED BY "password";
    GRANT CONNECT, RESOURCE TO ybvoyager_metadata;
    ALTER USER ybvoyager_metadata QUOTA UNLIMITED ON USERS;
    
    --upgraded to ybvoyager_import_data_batches_metainfo_v3 post v1.6
    CREATE TABLE ybvoyager_metadata.ybvoyager_import_data_batches_metainfo_v3 (
               migration_uuid VARCHAR2(36),
               data_file_name VARCHAR2(250),
               batch_number NUMBER(10),
               schema_name VARCHAR2(250),
               table_name VARCHAR2(250),
               rows_imported NUMBER(19),
               PRIMARY KEY (migration_uuid, data_file_name, batch_number, schema_name, table_name)
    );
    
    CREATE TABLE ybvoyager_metadata.ybvoyager_import_data_event_channels_metainfo (
                migration_uuid VARCHAR2(36),
                channel_no INT,
                last_applied_vsn NUMBER(19),
                num_inserts NUMBER(19),
                num_updates NUMBER(19),
                num_deletes NUMBER(19),
                PRIMARY KEY (migration_uuid, channel_no)
            );
    
    CREATE TABLE ybvoyager_metadata.ybvoyager_imported_event_count_by_table (
            migration_uuid VARCHAR2(36),
            table_name VARCHAR2(250),
            channel_no INT,
            total_events NUMBER(19),
            num_inserts NUMBER(19),
            num_updates NUMBER(19),
            num_deletes NUMBER(19),
            PRIMARY KEY (migration_uuid, table_name, channel_no)
        );
    
  2. Create a writer role for source-replica schema in the source-replica database, and assign privileges for ybvoyager_metadata as follows:

    CREATE ROLE <SCHEMA_NAME>_writer_role;
    
    BEGIN
        FOR R IN (SELECT owner, object_name FROM all_objects WHERE owner=UPPER('<SCHEMA_NAME>') and object_type ='TABLE' MINUS SELECT owner, table_name from all_nested_tables where owner = UPPER('<SCHEMA_NAME>'))
        LOOP
           EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, ALTER on '||R.owner||'."'||R.object_name||'" to  <SCHEMA_NAME>_writer_role';
        END LOOP;
    END;
    /
    
    DECLARE
       v_sql VARCHAR2(4000);
    BEGIN
        FOR table_rec IN (SELECT table_name FROM all_tables WHERE owner = 'YBVOYAGER_METADATA') LOOP
         v_sql := 'GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON YBVOYAGER_METADATA.' || table_rec.table_name || ' TO <SCHEMA_NAME>_writer_role';
          EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_sql;
        END LOOP;
    END;
    /
    
    GRANT CREATE ANY SEQUENCE, SELECT ANY SEQUENCE, ALTER ANY SEQUENCE TO <SCHEMA_NAME>_writer_role;
    
  3. Create a user and grant the preceding writer role to the user as follows:

    CREATE USER YBVOYAGER_FF IDENTIFIED BY password;
    GRANT CONNECT TO YBVOYAGER_FF;
    GRANT <SCHEMA_NAME>_writer_role TO YBVOYAGER_FF;
    
  4. If yb-voyager is installed on Ubuntu or RHEL, set the following variables on the client machine where yb-voyager is running:

    export ORACLE_HOME=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64
    export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib
    export PATH=$PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/bin
    

Create a user ybvoyager_ff for the migration with superuser privileges as follows:

CREATE USER ybvoyager_ff with password 'password' superuser;
  1. Create user ybvoyager_ff for the migration as follows:

    CREATE USER ybvoyager_ff with password 'password';
    GRANT rds_superuser to ybvoyager_ff;
    
  2. Grant CREATE privilege on the source database to ybvoyager_ff as follows:

    GRANT CREATE ON DATABASE <database_name> TO ybvoyager_ff;
    

Migrate your database to YugabyteDB

Proceed with schema and data migration using the following steps:

Export and analyze schema

To begin, export the schema from the source database. Once exported, analyze the schema and apply any necessary manual changes.

Export schema

The yb-voyager export schema command extracts the schema from the source database, converts it into PostgreSQL format (if the source database is Oracle or MySQL), and dumps the SQL DDL files in the EXPORT_DIR/schema/* directories.

Usage for source_db_schema

The source_db_schema argument specifies the schema of the source database.

  • For Oracle, source-db-schema can take only one schema name and you can migrate only one schema at a time.

An example invocation of the command with required arguments is as follows:

# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager export schema --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR> \
        --source-db-type <SOURCE_DB_TYPE> \
        --source-db-host <SOURCE_DB_HOST> \
        --source-db-user <SOURCE_DB_USER> \
        --source-db-password <SOURCE_DB_PASSWORD> \ # Enclose the password in single quotes if it contains special characters.
        --source-db-name <SOURCE_DB_NAME> \
        --source-db-schema <SOURCE_DB_SCHEMA>

Refer to export schema for details about the arguments.

Analyze schema

The schema exported in the previous step may not yet be suitable for importing into YugabyteDB. Even though YugabyteDB is PostgreSQL compatible, given its distributed nature, you may need to make minor manual changes to the schema.

The yb-voyager analyze-schema command analyses the PostgreSQL schema dumped in the export schema step, and prepares a report that lists the DDL statements which need manual changes. An example invocation of the command with required arguments is as follows:

# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager analyze-schema --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR> --output-format <FORMAT>

The above command generates a report file under the EXPORT_DIR/reports/ directory.

Refer to analyze schema for details about the arguments.

Manually edit the schema

Fix all the issues listed in the generated schema analysis report by manually editing the SQL DDL files from the EXPORT_DIR/schema/*.

After making the manual changes, re-run the yb-voyager analyze-schema command. This generates a fresh report using your changes. Repeat these steps until the generated report contains no issues.

To learn more about modelling strategies using YugabyteDB, refer to Data modeling.

Manual schema changes

Include the primary key definition in the CREATE TABLE statement. Primary Key cannot be added to a partitioned table using the ALTER TABLE statement.

Refer to the Manual review guideline for a detailed list of limitations and suggested workarounds associated with the source databases when migrating to YugabyteDB Voyager.

Import schema

Import the schema using the yb-voyager import schema command.

Usage for target_db_schema

yb-voyager imports the source database into the public schema of the target YugabyteDB database. By specifying --target-db-schema argument during import, you can instruct yb-voyager to create a non-public schema and use it for the schema/data import.

An example invocation of the command with required arguments is as follows:

# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager import schema --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR> \
        --target-db-host <TARGET_DB_HOST> \
        --target-db-user <TARGET_DB_USER> \
        --target-db-password <TARGET_DB_PASSWORD> \ # Enclose the password in single quotes if it contains special characters..
        --target-db-name <TARGET_DB_NAME> \
        --target-db-schema <TARGET_DB_SCHEMA>

Refer to import schema for details about the arguments.

yb-voyager applies the DDL SQL files located in the $EXPORT_DIR/schema directory to the target YugabyteDB database. If yb-voyager terminates before it imports the entire schema, you can rerun it by adding the --ignore-exist option.

Importing indexes and triggers

Because the presence of indexes and triggers can slow down the rate at which data is imported, by default import schema does not import indexes (except UNIQUE indexes to avoid any issues during import of schema because of foreign key dependencies on the index) and triggers. You should complete the data import without creating indexes and triggers. Only after data import is complete, create indexes and triggers using the import schema command with an additional --post-snapshot-import flag.

Export and import schema to source-replica database

Manually, set up the source-replica database with the same schema as that of the source database with the following considerations:

  • The table names on the source-replica database need to be case insensitive (YB Voyager currently does not support case-sensitivity).

  • Do not create indexes and triggers at the schema setup stage, as it will degrade performance of importing data into the source-replica database. Create them later as described in cutover to source-replica.

  • Disable foreign key constraints and check constraints on the source-replica database.

Export data from source

Begin exporting data from the source database into the EXPORT_DIR/data directory using the yb-voyager export data from source command with required arguments as follows:

# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager export data from source --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR> \
        --source-db-type <SOURCE_DB_TYPE> \
        --source-db-host <SOURCE_DB_HOST> \
        --source-db-user <SOURCE_DB_USER> \
        --source-db-password <SOURCE_DB_PASSWORD> \ # Enclose the password in single quotes if it contains special characters.
        --source-db-name <SOURCE_DB_NAME> \
        --source-db-schema <SOURCE_DB_SCHEMA> \
        --export-type snapshot-and-changes

The export data from source command first ensures that it exports a snapshot of the data already present on the source database. Next, you start a streaming phase (CDC phase) where you begin capturing new changes made to the data on the source after the migration has started. Some important metrics such as number of events, export rate, and so on will be displayed during the CDC phase similar to the following:

| ---------------------------------------  |  ----------------------------- |
| Metric                                   |                          Value |
| ---------------------------------------  |  ----------------------------- |
| Total Exported Events                    |                         123456 |
| Total Exported Events (Current Run)      |                         123456 |
| Export Rate(Last 3 min)                  |                      22133/sec |
| Export Rate(Last 10 min)                 |                      21011/sec |
| ---------------------------------------  |  ----------------------------- |

Note that the CDC phase will start only after a snapshot of the entire interested table-set is completed. Additionally, the CDC phase is restartable. So, if yb-voyager terminates when data export is in progress, it resumes from its current state after the CDC phase is restarted.

Important

yb-voyager creates a replication slot in the source database where disk space can be used up rapidly. To avoid this, execute the Cutover to the target or End Migration steps to delete the replication slot. If you choose to skip these steps, then you must delete the replication slot manually to reduce disk usage.

Caveats

  • Some data types are unsupported. For a detailed list, refer to datatype mappings.
  • For Oracle where sequences are not attached to a column, resume value generation is unsupported.
  • --parallel-jobs argument (specifies the number of tables to be exported in parallel from the source database at a time) has no effect on live migration.

Refer to export data for details about the arguments of an export operation.

The options passed to the command are similar to the yb-voyager export schema command. To export only a subset of the tables, pass a comma-separated list of table names in the --table-list argument.

get data-migration-report

Run the yb-voyager get data-migration-report --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR> command with to get a consolidated report of the overall progress of data migration concerning all the databases involved (source, target, and source-replica).

Refer to get data-migration-report for details about the arguments.

Import data to target

After you have successfully imported the schema in the target YugabyteDB database, and the CDC phase has started in export data from source (which you can monitor using the get data-migration-report command), you can start importing the data using the yb-voyager import data to target command with required arguments as follows:

# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager import data to target --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR> \
        --target-db-host <TARGET_DB_HOST> \
        --target-db-user <TARGET_DB_USER> \
        --target-db-password <TARGET_DB_PASSWORD> \ # Enclose the password in single quotes if it contains special characters.
        --target-db-name <TARGET_DB_NAME> \
        --target-db-schema <TARGET_DB_SCHEMA> \ # Oracle only.
        --parallel-jobs <NUMBER_OF_JOBS>

Refer to import data for details about the arguments.

For the snapshot exported, yb-voyager splits the data dump files (from the $EXPORT_DIR/data directory) into smaller batches. yb-voyager concurrently ingests the batches such that all nodes of the target YugabyteDB database cluster are used. After the snapshot is imported, a similar approach is employed for the CDC phase, where concurrent batches of change events are applied on the target YugabyteDB database cluster.

Some important metrics such as number of events, ingestion rate, and so on, will be displayed during the CDC phase similar to the following:

| -----------------------------  |  ----------------------------- |
| Metric                         |                          Value |
| -----------------------------  |  ----------------------------- |
| Total Imported events          |                         272572 |
| Events Imported in this Run    |                         272572 |
| Ingestion Rate (last 3 mins)   |               14542 events/sec |
| Ingestion Rate (last 10 mins)  |               14542 events/sec |
| Time taken in this Run         |                      0.83 mins |
| Remaining Events               |                        4727427 |
| Estimated Time to catch up     |                          5m42s |
| -----------------------------  |  ----------------------------- |

The entire import process is designed to be restartable if yb-voyager terminates while the data import is in progress. If restarted, the data import resumes from its current state.

Note

The arguments table-list and exclude-table-list are not supported in live migration. For details about the arguments, refer to the arguments table.

Importing large datasets

When importing a very large database, run the import data to target command in a screen session, so that the import is not terminated when the terminal session stops.

If the yb-voyager import data to target command terminates before completing the data ingestion, you can re-run it with the same arguments and the command will resume the data import operation.

get data-migration-report

Run the following command with required arguments to get a consolidated report of the overall progress of data migration concerning all the databases involved (source, target, and source-replica).

# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager get data-migration-report --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR> \
        --target-db-password <TARGET_DB_PASSWORD>

Refer to get data-migration-report for details about the arguments.

Import indexes and triggers

Import indexes and triggers on the target YugabyteDB database after the import data to target has completed the following tasks:

  • The exported snapshot has been completely imported on the target.
  • All the events accumulated on local disk by export data from source during the snapshot import phase and import data to target have caught up in the CDC phase (you can monitor the timeline based on Estimated Time to catch up metric).

After the preceding steps are completed, you can start importing indexes and triggers in parallel with the import data to target command using the import schema command with an additional --post-snapshot-import flag as follows:

# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager import schema --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR> \
        --target-db-host <TARGET_DB_HOST> \
        --target-db-user <TARGET_DB_USER> \
        --target-db-password <TARGET_DB_PASSWORD> \ # Enclose the password in single quotes if it contains special characters.
        --target-db-name <TARGET_DB_NAME> \
        --target-db-schema <TARGET_DB_SCHEMA> \
        --post-snapshot-import true

If any of the CREATE INDEX DDLs fail in the preceding command, drop the INVALID indexes on the target database using:

DO $$
DECLARE
  index_name text;
BEGIN
  FOR index_name IN (
    SELECT indexrelid::regclass
    FROM pg_index
    WHERE indisvalid = false
  )
  LOOP
    EXECUTE 'DROP INDEX ' || index_name;
  END LOOP;
END $$;

and then retry the command with the argument --ignore-exist to ignore already created indexes and create new ones instead.

# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager import schema --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR> \
        --target-db-host <TARGET_DB_HOST> \
        --target-db-user <TARGET_DB_USER> \
        --target-db-password <TARGET_DB_PASSWORD> \ # Enclose the password in single quotes if it contains special characters.
        --target-db-name <TARGET_DB_NAME> \
        --target-db-schema <TARGET_DB_SCHEMA> \
        --post-snapshot-import true \
        --ignore-exist true

Refer to import schema for details about the arguments.

Import data to source-replica

Note that the import data to source-replica is applicable for data migration only (schema migration needs to be done manually).

The import data to source-replica refers to replicating the snapshot data along with the changes exported from the source database to the source-replica database. The command to start the import with required arguments is as follows:

# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager import data to source-replica --export-dir <EXPORT-DIR> \
        --source-replica-db-host <HOST> \
        --source-replica-db-user <USERNAME> \
        --source-replica-db-password <PASSWORD> \ # Enclose the password in single quotes if it contains special characters.
        --source-replica-db-name <DB-NAME> \
        --source-replica-db-schema <SCHEMA-NAME> \
        --parallel-jobs <COUNT>

Refer to import data to source-replica for details about the arguments.

Similar to import data to target, during import data to source-replica:

  • The snapshot is first imported, following which, the change events are imported to the source-replica database.
  • Some important metrics such as the number of events, events rate, and so on, are displayed.
  • You can restart the command if it fails for any reason.

Additionally, when you run the import data to source-replica command, the get data-migration-report command also shows progress of importing all changes to the source-replica database. To view overall progress of the data import operation and streaming changes to the source-replica database, use the following command with required arguments:

# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager get data-migration-report --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR> \
        --target-db-password <TARGET_DB_PASSWORD> \
        --source-replica-db-password <SOURCE_REPLICA_DB_PASSWORD>

Archive changes (Optional)

As the migration continuously exports changes on the source database to the EXPORT-DIR, disk use continues to grow. To prevent the disk from filling up, you can optionally use the archive changes command with required arguments as follows:

Note

Make sure to run the archive changes command only after completing import data to source-replica. If you run the command before, you may archive some changes before they have been imported to the source-replica database.
# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager archive changes --export-dir <EXPORT-DIR> --move-to <DESTINATION-DIR>

Refer to archive changes for details about the arguments.

Cutover to the target

Cutover is the last phase, where you switch your application over from the source database to the target YugabyteDB database.

Keep monitoring the metrics displayed on export data from source and import data to target processes. After you notice that the import of events is catching up to the exported events, you are ready to cutover. You can use the "Remaining events" metric displayed in the import data to target process to help you determine the cutover.

Perform the following steps as part of the cutover process:

  1. Quiesce your source database, that is stop application writes.

  2. Perform a cutover after the exported events rate ("Export rate" in the metrics table) drops to 0 using the following command:

    # Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
    yb-voyager initiate cutover to target --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR>
    

    Refer to initiate cutover to target for details about the arguments.

    As part of the cutover process, the following occurs in the background:

    1. The initiate cutover to target command stops the export data from source process, followed by the import data to target process after it has imported all the events to the target YugabyteDB database.

    2. The export data from target command automatically starts capturing changes from the target YugabyteDB database to the source-replica database. Note that the import data to target process transforms to an export data from target process, so if it gets terminated for any reason, you need to restart process using the export data from target command as suggested in the import data to target output.

      Event duplication

      The export data from target command may result in duplicated events if you restart Voyager, or there is a change in the YugabyteDB database server state. Consequently, the get data-migration-report command may display additional events that have been exported from the target YugabyteDB database, and imported into the source-replica or source database. For such situations, it is recommended to manually verify data in the target and source-replica, or source database to ensure accuracy and consistency.
  3. If there are Materialized views in the migration, refresh them manually after cutover.

  4. Verify your migration. After the schema and data import is complete, the automated part of the database migration process is considered complete. You should manually run validation queries on both the source and target YugabyteDB database to ensure that the data is correctly migrated. A sample query to validate the databases can include checking the row count of each table.

    Caveat associated with rows reported by get data-migration-report

    Suppose you have the following scenario:

    • import data to target command fails.
    • To resolve this issue, you delete some of the rows from the split files.
    • After retrying, the import data to target command completes successfully.

    In this scenario, the get data-migration-report command reports an incorrect imported row count because it doesn't take into account the deleted rows.

    For more details, refer to the GitHub issue #360.

Cutover to source-replica (Optional)

During this phase, switch your application over from the target YugabyteDB database to the source-replica database. As this step is optional, perform it only if the target YugabyteDB database is not working as expected.

Keep monitoring the metrics displayed for export data from target and import data to source-replica processes. After you notice that the import of events to the source-replica database is catching up to the exported events from the target YugabyteDB database, you are ready to cutover. You can use the "Remaining events" metric displayed in the import data to source-replica process to help you determine the cutover.

Perform the following steps as part of the cutover process:

  1. Quiesce your target YugabyteDB database, that is stop application writes.

  2. Perform a cutover after the exported events rate ("Export rate" in the metrics table) drops to 0 using the following command:

    # Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
    yb-voyager initiate cutover to source-replica --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR>
    

    Refer to cutover to source-replica for details about the arguments.

    The initiate cutover to source-replica command stops the export data from target process, followed by the import data to source-replica process after it has imported all the events to the source-replica database.

  3. Wait for the cutover process to complete. Monitor the status of the cutover process using the following command:

    # Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
    yb-voyager cutover status --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR>
    

    Refer to cutover status for details about the arguments.

    Note that for Oracle migrations, restoring sequences after cutover on the source-replica database is currently unsupported, and you need to restore sequences manually.

  4. Set up indexes and triggers to the source-replica database manually. Also, re-enable the foreign key and check constraints.

  5. Verify your migration. After the schema and data import is complete, the automated part of the database migration process is considered complete. You should manually run validation queries on both the target and source-replica databases to ensure that the data is correctly migrated. A sample query to validate the databases can include checking the row count of each table.

    Caveat associated with rows reported by get data-migration-report

    Suppose you have a scenario where,

    • import data to source-replica command fails.
    • To resolve this issue, you delete some of the rows from the split files.
    • After retrying, the import data to target command completes successfully.

    In this scenario, get data-migration-report command reports incorrect imported row count; because it doesn't take into account the deleted rows.

    For more details, refer to the GitHub issue #360.

End migration

To complete the migration, you need to clean up the export directory (export-dir), and Voyager state ( Voyager-related metadata) stored in the target YugabyteDB database and source-replica database.

Run the yb-voyager end migration command to perform the clean up, and to back up the schema, data, migration reports, and log files by providing the backup related flags (mandatory) as follows:

# Replace the argument values with those applicable for your migration.
yb-voyager end migration --export-dir <EXPORT_DIR> \
        --backup-log-files <true, false, yes, no, 1, 0> \
        --backup-data-files <true, false, yes, no, 1, 0> \
        --backup-schema-files <true, false, yes, no, 1, 0> \
        --save-migration-reports <true, false, yes, no, 1, 0> \
        # Set optional argument to store a back up of any of the above arguments.
        --backup-dir <BACKUP_DIR>

Note that after you end the migration, you will not be able to continue further. If you want to back up the schema, data, log files, and the migration reports (analyze-schema report and get data-migration-report output) for future reference, the command provides an additional argument --backup-dir, using which you can pass the path of the directory where the backup content needs to be saved (based on what you choose to back up).

Refer to end migration for more details on the arguments.

Limitations

In addition to the Live migration limitations, the following additional limitations apply to the fall-forward feature:

  • Fall-forward is unsupported with a YugabyteDB cluster running on YugabyteDB Managed.
  • SSL Connectivity is unsupported for export or streaming events from YugabyteDB during export data from target.
  • Export data from target supports DECIMAL/NUMERIC datatypes for YugabyteDB versions 2.20.1.1 and later.