Rule 4

A string that's intended to identify a UTC offset is resolved first in pg_timezone_abbrevs.abbrev and, only if this fails, then in

This applies only in those syntax contexts where pg_timezone_abbrevs.abbrev is a candidate for the resolution—so not for set timezone, which looks only in

Download and install the date-time utilities code.

The code on this page depends on the code presented in the extended_timezone_names view section. This is included in the larger code kit that includes all of the reusable code that the overall date-time section describes and uses.

The page for Rule 3 tested with a string that's found uniquely in pg_timezone_abbrevs.abbrev. It established that for the second two syntax contexts (the at time zone operator and the text literal for a timestamptz value), the string is looked up in this column; and that for the first syntax context (the set timezone statement) this column is not searched.

Test with a string that's found uniquely in ''

You can discover, with ad hoc queries. that the string Europe/Amsterdam occurs only in Use the function occurrences() to confirm it thus

with c as (select occurrences('Europe/Amsterdam') as r)
  (c.r).names_name     ::text as "",
  (c.r).names_abbrev   ::text as "~names.abbrev",
  (c.r).abbrevs_abbrev ::text as "~abbrevs.abbrev"
from c;

This is the result: | ~names.abbrev | ~abbrevs.abbrev
 true        | false         | false

This means that the string Europe/Amsterdam can be used as a probe, using the function legal_scopes_for_syntax_context()_:

select x from legal_scopes_for_syntax_context('Europe/Amsterdam');

This is the result:

 Europe/Amsterdam:   names_name: true / names_abbrev: false / abbrevs_abbrev: false
 set timezone = 'Europe/Amsterdam';                           > OK
 select timezone('Europe/Amsterdam', '2021-06-07 12:00:00');  > OK
 select '2021-06-07 12:00:00 Europe/Amsterdam'::timestamptz;  > OK

So is searched in each of the three syntax contexts.

Test with a string that's found both in '' and in 'pg_timezone_abbrevs.abbrev'

The outcomes of the test that substantiated Rule-3 and of the test above raise the question of priority: what if the string that's intended to specify the UTC offset occurs in both columns?

You can discover, with ad hoc queries. that the string MET occurs both in and in pg_timezone_abbrevs.abbrev. Use the function occurrences() to confirm it thus

with c as (select occurrences('MET') as r)
  (c.r).names_name     ::text as "",
  (c.r).names_abbrev   ::text as "~names.abbrev",
  (c.r).abbrevs_abbrev ::text as "~abbrevs.abbrev"
from c;

This is the result: | ~names.abbrev | ~abbrevs.abbrev
 true        | false         | true

This means that the string MET can be used as a probe, using the function legal_scopes_for_syntax_context()_:

select x from legal_scopes_for_syntax_context('MET');

Predictably, this is the result:

 MET:                names_name: true / names_abbrev: false / abbrevs_abbrev: true
 set timezone = 'MET';                                        > OK
 select timezone('MET', '2021-06-07 12:00:00');               > OK
 select '2021-06-07 12:00:00 MET'::timestamptz;               > OK

Who wins?

The PostgresSQL documentation does not provide the answer. But the question can be answered empirically if MET (or another such string that occurs in both columns) maps to different UTC_offset values in the two different columns. Try this:

  met_names_offsets(string, names_offset, is_dst) as (
    select name, utc_offset, is_dst
    from pg_timezone_names
    where name = 'MET'),

  met_abbrevs_offset(string, abbrevs_offset) as (
    select abbrev, utc_offset
    from pg_timezone_abbrevs
    where abbrev = 'MET'),

possibly_disagreeing_offsets(string, names_offset, is_dst, abbrevs_offset) as (
  select string, n.names_offset, n.is_dst, a.abbrevs_offset
    met_names_offsets as n
    inner join
    met_abbrevs_offset as a

select string, names_offset, is_dst::text, abbrevs_offset
from possibly_disagreeing_offsets;

This is the result:

 string | names_offset | is_dst | abbrevs_offset
 MET    | 02:00:00     | true   | 01:00:00

Of course, there is just one row because both and pg_timezone_abbrevs.abbrev have unique values. You can see that the query happens to have been executed during the Day Light Savings Time period for the timezone MET. This is fortunate for the usefulness of the test that follows. Look up MET in the extended_timezone_names view.

select name, std_abbrev, dst_abbrev, std_offset, dst_offset
from extended_timezone_names
where name = 'MET';

This is the result:

 name | std_abbrev | dst_abbrev | std_offset | dst_offset
 MET  | MET        | MEST       | 01:00:00   | 02:00:00

So the test that follows would not be useful during MET's winter.

Can the test be carried out during the winter?

It turns out that no string exists that has the properties needed to do the test in the winter:

  • The string occurs both in and pg_timezone_abbrevs.abbrev.
  • pg_timezone_names.utc_offset and pg_timezone_abbrevs.utc_offset, for that string, differ during the winter.

You can see that with this query:

  ambiguous_strings(string) as (
    select name from pg_timezone_names
    select abbrev from pg_timezone_abbrevs),

  as (
        select utc_offset
        from pg_timezone_abbrevs a1
        where a1.abbrev =
    from extended_timezone_names e
    where in (
      select a2.string from ambiguous_strings a2))

  lpad(std_offset     ::text, 9) as "std offset from ~names",
  lpad(dst_offset     ::text, 9) as "dst offset from ~names",
  lpad(abbrevs_offset ::text, 9) as "offset from ~abbrevs"
from possibly_disagreeing_offsets
order by string;

This is the result:

 string | std_abbrev | dst_abbrev | std offset from ~names | dst offset from ~names | offset from ~abbrevs
 CET    | CET        | CEST       |  01:00:00              |  02:00:00              |  01:00:00
 EET    | EET        | EEST       |  02:00:00              |  03:00:00              |  02:00:00

 EST    | EST        | EST        | -05:00:00              | -05:00:00              | -05:00:00
 GMT    | GMT        | GMT        |  00:00:00              |  00:00:00              |  00:00:00
 HST    | HST        | HST        | -10:00:00              | -10:00:00              | -10:00:00

 MET    | MET        | MEST       |  01:00:00              |  02:00:00              |  01:00:00

 MST    | MST        | MST        | -07:00:00              | -07:00:00              | -07:00:00
 UCT    | UCT        | UCT        |  00:00:00              |  00:00:00              |  00:00:00
 UTC    | UTC        | UTC        |  00:00:00              |  00:00:00              |  00:00:00

 WET    | WET        | WEST       |  00:00:00              |  01:00:00              |  00:00:00

The blank lines were added by hand to highlight the rows where the value of "offset from ~abbrevs" differs from one of "std offset from ~names" or "dst offset from ~names". Notice that when it does differ, it always differs from the summer value. This means that the test cannot be carried out in the winter.

The names with the summer difference are CET, EET, MET, and WET.

Try the following exhaustive demonstration of the priority rule. (Of course, the demonstration will work only in the summer!) The test design rests on the rule that was established for the case that the string that specifies the UTC offset specifies the same value in both the ::timestamptz and the at time zone syntax contexts here in the section "Sensitivity of converting between timestamptz and plain timestamp to the UTC offset".

But, here, there is a critical difference in how the rule is formulated. It's formulated here to cover the conventional a priori assumption that's made at the application design stage when choosing between the two alternative ways to convert a plain timestamp value to a timestamptz value, thus:

    ts_with_tz_1 ◄— ts_plain::timestamptz # Following « set timezone = 'the_string' »
    ts_with_tz_2 ◄— ts_plain at time zone 'the_string'
    ts_with_tz_2 == ts_with_tz_1

Execute the test for a set of two kinds of string, as the comments in the initialization code of the strings text[] array explain. Notice that the if test means that the value of string is output only when the timestamptz values produced by the two different syntaxes disagree. And for each such output, it shows the difference (as an interval value, of course) between the two disagreeing timestamptz values

drop function if exists priority_rule_demo() cascade;

create function priority_rule_demo()
  returns table(z text)
  language plpgsql
as $body$
  set_timezone  constant text      not null := $$set timezone = '%s'$$;
  tz_on_entry   constant text      not null := current_setting('timezone');
  t0            constant timestamp not null := '2021-06-20 12:00:00'::timestamp;
  the_string             text      not null := '';
  strings       constant text[]    not null := array
                  /* These offset strings occur */    'Pacific/Pago_Pago',
                  /* uniquely in ""  */    'America/Porto_Velho',

                  /* These offset strings occur */    'CET',
                  /* both in ""      */    'EET',
                  /* and in "~abbrevs.abbrev"   */    'MET',
  z := rpad('Timezone', 25)||lpad('t0::timestamptz - t0 at time zone "the_string"', 49);   return next;
  z := rpad('-', 25, '-')  ||lpad('----------------------------------------------', 49);   return next;
  foreach the_string in array strings loop
  execute format(set_timezone, the_string);
      t1    constant timestamptz      not null := t0::timestamptz;
      e1    constant double precision not null := extract(epoch from t1);

      t2    constant timestamptz      not null := t0 at time zone the_string;
      e2    constant double precision not null := extract(epoch from t2);

      diff  constant interval         not null := make_interval(secs=>(e2 - e1));
      if e1 <> e2 then
        z :=
          rpad(the_string, 25)||
          lpad(to_char(diff, 'hh24:mi')::text, 49);                                        return next;
      end if;
  end loop;

execute format(set_timezone, tz_on_entry);

select z from priority_rule_demo();

This is the result:

 Timezone                    t0::timestamptz - t0 at time zone "the_string"
 -------------------------   ----------------------------------------------
 CET                                                                  01:00
 EET                                                                  01:00
 MET                                                                  01:00
 WET                                                                  01:00

Notice that the difference, when it's non-zero, is always equal to the difference between the UTC offset values read from the "" column and the "~abbrevs.abbrev" column— one hour in each case.

This outcome supports the formulation of the rule that this page addresses.

The results also highlight an insidious risk. Suppose that a developer doesn't know the priority rule and assumes (erroneously, but arguably reasonably) that a timezone name never occurs in pg_timezone_abbrevs.abbrev (or, maybe, that if it did then would win). And assume that she carries out acceptance tests of her application code, using any of the four timezone names where the ~names offset and the ~abbrevs offset differ only in the summer—and that she does this testing in the winter. All will seem to be good. And then the summer will bring silent wrong results!

Yugabyte recommends that you program your application code defensively so that you explicitly avoid this risk by ensuring that names that are used to specify the UTC offset occur only in The section Recommended practice for specifying the UTC offset explains how to do this.