Npgsql is an open source ADO.NET Data Provider for PostgreSQL. It allows programs written in C#, Visual Basic, and F# to access YugabyteDB.

CRUD operations

Learn how to establish a connection to YugabyteDB database and begin basic CRUD operations using the steps on the Build an application page.

The following section breaks down the example to demonstrate how to perform common tasks required for C# application development using the Npgsql driver.

After completing these steps, you should have a working C# application that uses the Npgsql driver to connect to your cluster, set up tables, run a query, and print out results.

Step 1: Add the Npgsql driver dependency

If you are using Visual Studio, add the Npgsql package to your project as follows:

  1. Right-click Dependencies and choose Manage Nuget Packages.
  2. Search for Npgsql and click Add Package.

To add the Npgsql package to your project when not using an IDE, use the following dotnet command:

dotnet add package Npgsql

or any of the other methods mentioned on the nuget page for Npgsql.

Step 2: Set up the database connection

After setting up the dependencies, implement a C# client application that uses the Npgsql driver to connect to your YugabyteDB cluster and run a query on the sample data.

Import Npgsql and use the NpgsqlConnection class for getting connection objects for the YugabyteDB database that can be used for performing DDLs and DMLs against the database.

The following table describes the connection parameters required to connect to the YugabyteDB database.

Parameter Description Default
host Hostname of the YugabyteDB instance localhost
port Listen port for YSQL 5433
database Database name yugabyte
user id User for connecting to the database yugabyte
password Password for connecting to the database yugabyte

The following is an example connection string for connecting to YugabyteDB.

var connStringBuilder = "host=localhost;port=5433;database=yugabyte;user id=yugabyte;password="
NpgsqlConnection conn = new NpgsqlConnection(connStringBuilder)


Set up the driver properties to configure the credentials and SSL certificates for connecting to your cluster. The following table describes the additional parameters the .NET Npgsql driver requires as part of the connection string when using SSL.

Npgsql Parameter Description
SslMode SSL Mode
RootCertificate Path to the root certificate on your computer

The following is an example connection string for connecting to YugabyteDB using SSL.

var connStringBuilder = new NpgsqlConnectionStringBuilder();
    connStringBuilder.Host = "";
    connStringBuilder.Port = 5433;
    connStringBuilder.SslMode = SslMode.VerifyFull;
    connStringBuilder.RootCertificate = "/root.crt" //Provide full path to your root CA.
    connStringBuilder.Username = "admin";
    connStringBuilder.Password = "xxxxxx";
    connStringBuilder.Database = "yugabyte";

YugabyteDB Managed clusters require SSL. Refer to Connect applications for instructions on how to obtain the cluster connection parameters and download the CA certificate.

Refer to Configure SSL/TLS for more information on Npgsql default and supported SSL modes, and examples for setting up your connection strings when using SSL.

Step 3: Query the YugabyteDB cluster from your application

Copy the following code to the Program.cs file to set up YugbyteDB tables and query the table contents from the C# client. Replace the connection string connStringBuilder with the credentials of your cluster, and SSL certificates if required.

using System;
using Npgsql;

namespace Yugabyte_CSharp_Demo
    class Program
        static void Main(string[] args)
            var connStringBuilder = "host=localhost;port=5433;database=yugabyte;user id=yugabyte;password="
            NpgsqlConnection conn = new NpgsqlConnection(connStringBuilder);


                NpgsqlCommand empCreateCmd = new NpgsqlCommand("CREATE TABLE employee (id int PRIMARY KEY, name varchar, age int, language varchar);", conn);
                Console.WriteLine("Created table Employee");

                NpgsqlCommand empInsertCmd = new NpgsqlCommand("INSERT INTO employee (id, name, age, language) VALUES (1, 'John', 35, 'CSharp');", conn);
                int numRows = empInsertCmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                Console.WriteLine("Inserted data (1, 'John', 35, 'CSharp')");

                NpgsqlCommand empPrepCmd = new NpgsqlCommand("SELECT name, age, language FROM employee WHERE id = @EmployeeId", conn);
                empPrepCmd.Parameters.Add("@EmployeeId", NpgsqlTypes.NpgsqlDbType.Integer);

                empPrepCmd.Parameters["@EmployeeId"].Value = 1;
                NpgsqlDataReader reader = empPrepCmd.ExecuteReader();

                Console.WriteLine("Query returned:\nName\tAge\tLanguage");
                while (reader.Read())
                    Console.WriteLine("{0}\t{1}\t{2}", reader.GetString(0), reader.GetInt32(1), reader.GetString(2));
            catch (Exception ex)
                Console.WriteLine("Failure: " + ex.Message);
                if (conn.State != System.Data.ConnectionState.Closed)

When you run the project, Program.cs should output something like the following:

Created table Employee
Inserted data (1, 'John', 35, 'CSharp')
Query returned:
Name  Age  Language
John  35   CSharp

If you receive no output or an error, check the parameters in the connection string.

Next steps