Connect an application

The PGX driver is one of the most popular and actively maintained drivers for PostgreSQL. Use the driver to connect to YugabyteDB database to execute DML and DDL statements using the PGX APIs. It also supports the standard database/sql package.

CRUD operations

For Go applications, most drivers provide database connectivity through the standard database/sql API. The following sections break down the example to demonstrate how to perform common tasks required for Go application development using the PGX driver.

To start building your application, make sure you have met the prerequisites.

Step 1: Import the driver package

Import the PGX driver package by adding the following import statement in your Go code.

import (

To install the package locally, run the following commands:

mkdir yb-pgx
cd yb-pgx
go mod init hello
go get

Step 2: Set up the database connection

Go applications can connect to the YugabyteDB database using the pgx.Connect() function. The pgx package includes all the common functions or structs required for working with YugabyteDB.

Use the pgx.Connect() method to create a connection object for the YugabyteDB database. This can be used to perform DDL and DML operations against the database.

The PGX connection URL is in the following format:


Code snippet for connecting to YugabyteDB:

url := fmt.Sprintf("postgres://%s:%s@%s:%d/%s",
                    user, password, host, port, dbname)
conn, err := pgx.Connect(context.Background(), url)
Parameter Description Default
user User connecting to the database yugabyte
password User password yugabyte
host Hostname of the YugabyteDB instance localhost
port Listen port for YSQL 5433
dbname Database name yugabyte


For a YugabyteDB Managed cluster, or a YugabyteDB cluster with SSL/TLS enabled, set the SSL-related environment variables as below at the client side. SSL/TLS is enabled by default for client-side authentication. Refer to Configure SSL/TLS for the default and supported modes.

$ export PGSSLMODE=verify-ca
$ export PGSSLROOTCERT=~/root.crt  # Here, the CA certificate file is downloaded as `root.crt` under home directory. Modify your path accordingly.
Environment variable Description
PGSSLMODE SSL mode used for the connection
PGSSLROOTCERT Path to the root certificate on your computer

Step 3: Write your application

Create a file called QuickStartApp.go and add the following contents into it:

package main

import (


const (
  host     = ""
  port     = 5433
  user     = "yugabyte"
  password = "yugabyte"
  dbname   = "yugabyte"

func main() {
    // SSL/TLS config is read from env variables PGSSLMODE and PGSSLROOTCERT, if provided.
    url := fmt.Sprintf("postgres://%s:%s@%s:%d/%s",
                       user, password, host, port, dbname)
    conn, err := pgx.Connect(context.Background(), url)
    if err != nil {
        fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "Unable to connect to database: %v\n", err)
    defer conn.Close(context.Background())

    var dropStmt = `DROP TABLE IF EXISTS employee`;

    _, err = conn.Exec(context.Background(), dropStmt)
    if err != nil {
        fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "Exec for drop table failed: %v\n", err)
    // The `conn.Exec()` function also returns an `error` object which,
    // if not `nil`, needs to be handled in your code.
    var createStmt = `CREATE TABLE employee (id int PRIMARY KEY,
                                             name varchar,
                                             age int,
                                             language varchar)`;
    _, err = conn.Exec(context.Background(), createStmt)
    if err != nil {
        fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "Exec for create table failed: %v\n", err)
    fmt.Println("Created table employee")

    // Insert data using the conn.Exec() function.
    var insertStmt string = "INSERT INTO employee(id, name, age, language)" +
        " VALUES (1, 'John', 35, 'Go')";
    _, err = conn.Exec(context.Background(), insertStmt)
    if err != nil {
        fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "Exec for create table failed: %v\n", err)
    fmt.Printf("Inserted data: %s\n", insertStmt)
    // The pgx driver automatically prepares and caches statements by default, so you don't have to.

    // Query data using the conn.Query() function with the SELECT statements.
    var name string
    var age int
    var language string
    rows, err := conn.Query(context.Background(), "SELECT name, age, language FROM employee WHERE id = 1")
    if err != nil {
    defer rows.Close()
    fmt.Printf("Query for id=1 returned: ");
    // Results are returned in pgx.Rows which can be iterated using the method.
    for rows.Next() {
        // Read the data using pgx.rows.Scan().
        err := rows.Scan(&name, &age, &language)
        if err != nil {
        fmt.Printf("Row[%s, %d, %s]\n", name, age, language)
    err = rows.Err()
    if err != nil {

The const values are set to the defaults for a local installation of YugabyteDB. If you are using YugabyteDB Managed, replace the const values in the file as follows:

  • host - The host address of your cluster. The host address is displayed on the cluster Settings tab.
  • user - Your YugabyteDB database username. In YugabyteDB Managed, the default user is admin.
  • password - Your YugabyteDB database password.
  • dbname - The name of the YugabyteDB database. The default name is yugabyte.
  • port is set to 5433, which is the default port for the YSQL API.

Run the project QuickStartApp.go using the following command:

go run QuickStartApp.go

You should see output similar to the following:

Created table employee
Inserted data: INSERT INTO employee(id, name, age, language) VALUES (1, 'John', 35, 'Go')
Query for id=1 returned: Row[John, 35, Go]

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