The PostgreSQL node-postgres driver is the official Node.js driver for PostgreSQL which can be used to connect with YugabyteDB YSQL API. Because YugabyteDB YSQL API has is fully compatible with PostgreSQL node-postgres (pg) driver, it allows Node.js programmers to connect to the YugabyteDB database to execute DMLs and DDLs using the node-postgres APIs.

Quick start

Learn how to establish a connection to YugabyteDB database and begin CRUD operations using the steps from Build a Node.js Application in the Quick start section.

Install the driver dependency and async utility

Postgres Node.js driver is available as a Node module, and you can install the driver using the following command:

npm install pg

To install the async utility, run the following command:

$ npm install --save async

Fundamentals

Learn how to perform common tasks required for Node.js application development using the PostgreSQL node-postgres driver.

Connect to YugabyteDB database

Node.js applications can connect to and query the YugabyteDB database using the pg module. The pg.Client is the client we can create for the application by passing the connection string as parameter in the constructor. The Client.connect() can be used to connect with database with that connection string. Use new Client(<connection-string>) to create a new client with the connection string.

The following table describes the connection parameters required to connect to the YugabyteDB database.

node-postgres Parameters Description Default
hostname hostname of the YugabyteDB instance localhost
port Listen port for YSQL 5433
database database name yugabyte
user user for connecting to the database yugabyte
password password for connecting to the database yugabyte

The following is an example connection string for connecting to YugabyteDB.

var connectionString = "postgresql://yugabyte:[email protected]:5433/yugabyte";
var client = new Client(connectionString);

Create table

Tables can be created in YugabyteDB by passing the CREATE TABLE DDL statement as a parameter to the client.query(<SQL_Statement>) function.

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS employee (id int primary key, name varchar, age int, language text)
var connectionString = "postgresql://yugabyte:[email protected]:5433/yugabyte";
var client = new Client(connectionString);
await client.connect()
var createTableStr = 'CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS employee (id int primary key, name varchar, age int, language text);';
client
    .query(createTableStr)
    .catch((err) => {
      console.log(err);
    })

Read more on designing Database schemas and tables.

Read and Write Data

Insert Data

To write data to YugabyteDB, execute the INSERT statement using the client.query() function.

INSERT INTO employee VALUES (1, 'John', 35, 'Java')
var connectionString = "postgresql://yugabyte:[email protected]:5433/yugabyte";
var client = new Client(connectionString);
await client.connect()
var insertRowStr = "INSERT INTO employee VALUES (1, 'John', 35, 'Java')";
client
    .query(insertRowStr)
    .catch((err) => {
      console.log(err);
    })

Query data

To query data from YugabyteDB tables, execute the SELECT statement using the Client.query() interface. Query results are returned which has rows array ; results contain rows returned from the query, rowCount has number of rows returned and a command field which stores the SQL command of the query being executed.

SELECT * from employee;
var connectionString = "postgresql://yugabyte:[email protected]:5433/yugabyte";
var client = new Client(connectionString);
await client.connect()
var selectStr = 'SELECT * from employee';
client
    .query(selectStr)
    .then((res) => {
      console.log("Number of Employees:" , res.rowCount);
      console.log(res.rows[0]);
    })

Configure SSL/TLS

To build a Node.js application that communicates securely over SSL, get the root certificate (ca.crt) of the YugabyteDB Cluster. If certificates are not generated yet, follow the instructions in Create server certificates.

Because a YugabyteDB Managed cluster is always configured with SSL/TLS, you don't have to generate any certificate but only set the client-side SSL configuration. To fetch your root certificate, refer to CA certificate.

The node-postgres driver allows you to avoid including the parameters like sslcert, sslkey, sslrootcert, or sslmode in the connection string. You can pass the object which includes connectionString and ssl object which has various fields including the following:

  • rejectUnauthorized boolean variable tells the driver to throw the error when SSL connectivity fails (default: true).
  • ca string of root certificate read by fs module and converted into a string.

The following example shows how to build a connection string for connecting to a YugabyteDB.

var client = new Client({
  connectionString = "postgresql://yugabyte:[email protected]:5433/yugabyte",
  ssl: {
    rejectUnauthorized: false,
    ca: fs.readFileSync('<path_to_root_crt>').toString(),
  }
});

SSL modes

SSL mode Client driver behavior
disable Supported
allow Not supported
prefer Not supported
require (default) Supported
verify-ca Supported
(Self-signed certificates aren't supported.)
verify-full Supported

Transaction and Isolation Levels

YugabyteDB supports transactions for inserting and querying data from the tables. YugabyteDB supports different isolation levels for maintaining strong consistency for concurrent data access.

Node-postgres driver allows transaction using the queries, executed using client.query().

BEGIN
INSERT INTO employee VALUES (2, 'Bob', 33, 'C++');
INSERT INTO employee VALUES (3, 'Jake', 30, 'JS');
COMMIT/ROLLBACK;
var connectionString = "postgresql://yugabyte:[email protected]:5433/yugabyte";
var client = new Client(connectionString);
await client.connect()
var insertRowStr1 = "INSERT INTO employee VALUES (2, 'Bob', 33, 'C++');";
var insertRowStr2 = "INSERT INTO employee VALUES (3, 'Jake', 30, 'JS');";
try {
  await client.query('BEGIN');
  await client.query(insertRowStr1);
  await client.query(insertRowStr2);
  await client.query('COMMIT');
} catch (err) {
  console.log('Error in executing transaction', err, 'Rolling back');
  client
      .query('ROLLBACK')
      .catch((err) => {
        console.log("Error in Rolling back", err);
      })
}